Breast cancer diagnosis by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of urine

Abstract

Background: There is an ongoing research for breast cancer diagnostic tools that are cheaper, more accurate and more convenient than mammography.

Methods: In this study, we employed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for analysing urine from n=53 breast cancer patients and n=22 controls, with the aim of discriminating between the two groups using multivariate data analysis techniques such as principal component analysis—linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA). The SERS spectra were acquired using silver nanoparticles synthesized by reduction with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, which were additionally activated with Ca²⁺10⁻⁴M.

Results: The addition of Ca(NO₃)₂10⁻⁴M promoted the specific adsorption to the metal surface of the anionic purine metabolites such as uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine. Moreover, the SERS spectra of urine were acquired without any filtering or processing step for removing protein traces and other contaminants. Using PCA-LDA, the SERS spectra of urine from breast cancer patients were classified with a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 95% and an overall accuracy of 88%.

Conclusion: The results of this preliminary study contribute to the translation of SERS in the clinical setting and highlight the potential of SERS as a novel screening strategy for breast cancer.

Authors

Vlad Moisoiu
Faculty of Physics, Babeș-Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Faculty of Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Andreea Socaciu
Faculty of Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
MEDISYN Clinic, 400474 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Andrei Stefancu
Faculty of Physics, Babeș-Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
MEDFUTURE Research Center for Advanced Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Stefania D. Iancu
Faculty of Physics, Babeș-Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
IMOGEN Medical Research Institute, County Clinical Emergency Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Imre Boros
Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Tiberiu Popoviciu Institute of Numerical Analysis, Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Cristian D. Alecsa
Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Tiberiu Popoviciu Institute of Numerical Analysis, Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Claudiu Rachieriu
Faculty of Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy,  Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Angelica R. Chiorean
Department of Radiology, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy,  Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Daniela Eniu

Department of Biophysics, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Nicolae Leopold
Faculty of Physics, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
MEDFUTURE Research Center for Advanced Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Carmen Socaciu
Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
BIODIATECH Research Centre for Applied Biotechnology, SC Proplanta, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Dan T. Eniu
Faculty of Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Department of Surgical and Gynecological Oncology, Ion Chiricuta Oncologic Institute, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Keywords

breast cancer; cation SERS activation; multivariate data analysis; surface-enhanced Raman scattering; urine

Paper coordinates

V. Moisoiu, A. Socaciu, A. Stefancu, St.D. Iancu, I. Boros, C.-D. Alecsa, C. Rachieriu, A.R. Chiorean, D. Eniu, N. Leopold, C. Socaciu, D.T. Eniu, Breast cancer diagnosis by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) of urine, Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 806
doi: 10.3390/app9040806

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Journal

Applied Sciences

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DOI

10.3390/app9040806

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References

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