Nonlinear alternatives of hybrid type for nonself vector-valued maps and application

Abstract


In this paper we obtain nonlinear alternatives of Leray-Schauder and Monch type for nonself vector-valued operators, under hybrid conditions of Perov contraction and compactness.

Thus, we give vector versions of the theorems of Krasnosel’skii, Avramescu, Burton-Kirk and Gao-Li Zhang. An application is given to a boundary value problem for a system of second order differential equations in which some of the equations are implicit.

Authors

Veronica Ilea
Babes–Bolyai University, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Adela Novac
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Mathematics, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Diana Otrocol
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Mathematics,  Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Tiberiu Popoviciu Institute of Numerical Analysis, Romanian Academy

Radu Precup
Department of Mathematics Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Tiberiu Popoviciu Institute of Numerical Analysis, Romanian Academy

Keywords

Nonlinear operator; nonself map; fixed point; Perov contraction; nonlinear boundary value problem.

Paper coordinates

V. Ilea, A. Novac, D. Otrocol, R. Precup, Nonlinear alternatives of hybrid type for nonself vector-valued maps and application, Fixed Point Theory, 24 (2023) no. 1, 221-232, http://doi.org/10.24193/fpt-ro.2023.1.11

PDF

About this paper

Journal

Fixed Point Theory

Publisher Name

Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă Cluj-Napoca
(House of the Book of Science Cluj-Napoca)

Print ISSN

1583-5022

Online ISSN

2066-9208

google scholar link

Nonlinear alternatives of hybrid type for nonself vector-valued maps and application

Nonlinear alternatives of hybrid type for nonself vector-valued maps and application

Veronica Ilea Adela Novac Diana Otrocol Radu Precup Babeş–Bolyai University, Department of Mathematics, 1 M. Kogălniceanu Street, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, ilea.veronica@gmail.comTechnical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Mathematics, 28 Memorandumului Street, 400114 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, adela.chis@math.utcluj.roTechnical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Mathematics, 28 Memorandumului Street, 400114 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Diana.Otrocol@math.utcluj.roBabeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science and Institute of Advanced Studies in Science and Technology, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania & Tiberiu Popoviciu Institute of Numerical Analysis, Romanian Academy, P.O. Box 68-1, 400110 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, r.precup@math.ubbcluj.ro
Abstract

In this paper we obtain nonlinear alternatives of Leray-Schauder and Mönch type for nonself vector-valued operators, under hybrid conditions of Perov contraction and compactness. Thus we give vector versions of the theorems of Krasnosel’skii, Avramescu, Burton-Kirk and Gao-Li-Zhang. An application is given to a boundary value problem for a system of second order differential equations in which some of the equations are implicit.

Keywords: Nonlinear operator; nonself map; fixed point; Perov contraction; nonlinear boundary value problem.

MSC: 47H10, 34B15

1 Introduction

1.1 Krasnosel’skii type results for self maps

Any study in operator equations with hybrid conditions must begin with Krasnosel’skii’s theorem for the sum of two operators.

Theorem 1.1 (Krasnosel’skii).

[12] Let D be a closed bounded convex subset of a Banach space X,A:DX a contraction and B:DX a continuous mapping with B(D) relatively compact. If

A(x)+B(y)Dfor every x,yD, (1)

then the map N:=A+B has at least one fixed point.

The hybrid character of Krasnosel’skii’s theorem lies in the decomposition of the operator N as a sum of two maps A and B with different properties. Condition (1) shows that N is a self map of D as in the fixed point theorems of Banach and Schauder which Krasnosel’skii’s theorem uses together in the proof.

An other possibility for a hybrid approach arises in case of systems, when the domain of N splits as a Cartesian product, say X×Y, and correspondingly the operator N splits as a couple (N1,N2), where N1,N2 take their values in X and Y, respectively. A typical result in this direction is the following vector version of Krasnosel’skii’s theorem, due to Avramescu [1], which we state here in a slightly modified form and whose proof is reproduced in [4].

Theorem 1.2 (Avramescu).

[1] Let (D1,d) be a complete metric space, D2 a closed convex subset of a normed space Y and let Ni:D1×D2Di, i=1,2 be continuous mappings. Assume that the following conditions are satisfied:

(a)

There is a constant l[0,1) such that

d(N1(x,y),N1(x¯,y))ld(x,x¯)

for all x,x¯D1 and yD2;

(b)

N2(D1×D2) is a relatively compact subset of Y.

Then there exists (x,y)D1×D2 with

N1(x,y)=x,N2(x,y)=y.

In this regard, let us note the conclusion of the paper [17] according to which any theorem of continuous dependence of the fixed point on parameters can be associated with a fixed point existence result for operators of the form N:X×YX×Y.

For the connection between Theorem 1.2 and Theorem 1.1, see Remark 1.2 in [4].

In the paper [6] it went further and added even more heterogeneity by mixing together the metrical topology of a complete metric space with the norm-topology and weak topology of a Banach space. Thus, results were obtained that combine the Banach-Perov, Schauder and Arino–Gautier-Penot fixed point theorems and the Banach-Perov theorem with the strong and weak-topology versions of Mönch’s fixed point theorem. These results are dealing with operators of the form

N=(N1,,Nn), Ni:VVifor i=1,,n,

on a Cartesian product space

V=V1××Vn,

where a number p(0pn) of spaces, V1,,Vp are complete metric spaces endowed with the metrics di, i=1,,p, a number q(0qnp) are Banach spaces considered with their strong topologies, and the remaining ones are Banach spaces with their weak topologies. Let

X=i=1pVi,Y=i=p+1p+qVi,Z=i=p+q+1nVi

and

F=(N1,..,Np),G=(Np+1,,Np+q),H=(Np+q+1,,Nn),

be defined respectively if p>0, q>0 and n(p+q)>0. We note that if p=0 then the set X does not appear; analogously for the set Y when q=0, and for Z if p+q=n.

Denote by d the vector-valued metric d:X+p given by

d(x,x¯)=(d1(x1,x¯1),,dp(xp,x¯p))T,

where x=(x1,,xp), x¯=(x¯1,,x¯p), and use the notation

d(F(x,y,z),F(x¯,y,z))
= (d1(N1(x,y,z),N1(x¯,y,z)),,dp(Np(x,y,z),Np(x¯,y,z)))T,

for x,x¯X, yY and zZ.

Thus we have a first generalization of Avramescu’s theorem for self maps.

Theorem 1.3.

[6] Let KiVi, i=p+1,,n, be convex such that Ki is compact for i=p+1,,p+q, and weakly compact for i=p+q+1,,n. Let KY=i=p+1p+qKi,KZ=i=p+q+1nKi,and N=(N1,,Nn):X×KY×KZV a map with

Ni:X×KY×KZVi,i=1,,p;Ni:X×KY×KZKi,i=p+1,,n.

On the maps F,G,H one assumes that

(i) for each point xX, F(x,.,.) is sequentially continuous from KY×KZ to X with respect to the strong topology on KY and weak topology on KZ, and there exists a square matrix M of size p having nonnegative entries and with the spectral radius ρ(M)<1 such that

d(F(x,y,z),F(x¯,y,z))Md(x,x¯)

for all x,x¯X, yKY and zKZ.

(ii) G and H are sequentially continuous from X×KY×KZ to KY and KZ, respectively, with respect to the strong topology on KY and weak topology on KZ.

Then there exists v=(x,y,z)X×KY×KZ with N(v)=v.

A second generalization of Avramescu’s theorem uses together the Banach-Perov fixed point theorem and the strong and weak versions of Mönch’s fixed point theorem for self maps.

Theorem 1.4.

[6] Let DiVi be a closed convex set for i=p+1,,n, DY=i=p+1p+qDi,DZ=i=p+q+1nDi,and let N=(N1,,Nn):X×DY×DZV be a map with

Ni:X×DY×DZVi,i=1,,p;Ni:X×DY×DZDi,i=p+1,,n.

Assume that the maps F,G,H satisfy the following conditions:

(i) for each point xX, F(x,.,.) is sequentially continuous from DY×DZ to X with respect the strong topology on DY and the weak topology on DZ, and there exists a square matrix M of size p having nonnegative entries and spectral radius less than 1 such that

d(F(x,y,z),F(x¯,y,z))Md(x,x¯)

for all x,x¯X, yDY, and zDZ;

(ii) G and H are sequentially continuous from X×DY×DZ to DY and DZ, respectively, with respect the strong topology on DY and the weak topology on DZ;

(iii) for some points (xp+1,,xp+q)DY and (xp+q+1,,xn)DZ, one has

CiVi countable for i=1,..,p, CiDi countable for i=p+1,,n,C=i=1nCi,Ci¯=conv¯({xi}Ni(C)), i=p+1,,p+q,Ci¯w=conv¯({xi}Ni(C)), i=p+q+1,,n,impliesCi¯ is strongly compact for i=p+1,,p+q and Ci¯w is weakly compact for i=p+q+1,,n.

Then there exists v=(x,y,z)X×DY×DZ with N(v)=v.

1.2 Krasnosel’skii type results for nonself maps


Several extensions of Krasnosel’skii’s theorem to nonself maps have been given. One is due to O’Regan and is based on the fact that the map A+B in Krasnosel’skii’s theorem is condensing and thus the Leray-Schauder continuation principle for condensing maps can be used. Stated as a continuation theorem, O’Regan’s result reads as follows.

Theorem 1.5 (O’Regan).

[13] Let U be an open set in a closed, convex set C of a Banach space (X,|.|X). Assume 0U and N:U¯C is given by N=A+B, where A:U¯C is a ϕ-contraction, i.e., there exists a continuous nondecreasing function ϕ:[0,+)[0,+) satisfying ϕ(t)<t for t>0, such that |A(x)A(y)|Xφ(|xy|X) for all x,yU¯, and B:U¯C is completely continuous. Then either,

(i) N has a fixed point in U¯, or

(ii) there is a point uU and λ(0,1) with u=λN(u).

Using the original idea of the proof of Krasnosel’skii’s theorem and Schaefer’s fixed point theorem instead of Schauder’s one, we have the following result due to Burton and Kirk, also presented as a continuation theorem.

Theorem 1.6 (Burton-Kirk).

[5] Let X be a Banach space, A,B:XX,A a contraction and B completely continuous. Then either

(i) x=λA(xλ)+λBx has a solution in X for λ=1, or

(ii) the set of all such solutions, 0<λ<1, is unbounded.

A similar result is given in [9] by replacing the equation x=λA(x/λ)+λBx with x=A(x)+λBx.

Theorem 1.7 (Gao-Li-Zhang).

[9] Let X be a Banach space, A,B:XX,A a contraction and B completely continuous. Then either

(i) x=A(x)+λB(x) has a solution in V for λ=1, or

(ii) the set of all such solutions, 0<λ<1, is unbounded.

In the proofs, one uses the homotopy λ(IA)1B in case of Theorem 1.6, in contrast to Theorem 1.7 where the homotopy (IA)1λB is used.

For other extensions of Krasnosel’skii’s fixed point theorem we refer to [2], [3], [8], [10], [11], [14], [15], [18] and [19]. A variational version of Avramescu’s theorem is given in [4].

The aim of this paper is to obtain nonlinear alternatives of Leray-Schauder and Mönch type for nonself vector-valued operators, under hybrid conditions of Perov contraction and compactness. Thus we shall extend the theorems of Krasnosel’skii, Avramescu, Burton-Kirk and Gao-Li-Zhang. An application is given to a boundary value problem for a system of second order differential equations in which some of the equations are implicit.

2 Nonlinear alternatives

2.1 Avramescu type principle for nonself maps

Consider a system of two operator equations

{N1(x,y)=xN2(x,y)=y. (2)

We have the following general topological principle in terms of fixed point index (see [7, Section 2.1]).

Theorem 2.1.

 Let Y be a Banach space, KY a retract of Y and UK open in K. Let Λ be a topological space and

N1 : Λ×U¯Λ,
N2 : Λ×U¯K

be two mappings such that the following conditions are satisfied:

(a) For each yU¯, there is a unique x=:S(y)Λ with

N1(S(y),y)=S(y);

(b) There is a compact map H:U¯×[0,1]K, Hλ:=H(,λ), with

i(H0,U,K)0and H1=N2(S(.),.).

Then either

(i) the system (2) has a solution (x,y)Λ×U¯, or

(ii) there is a point yKU and λ(0,1) with y=H(y,λ).

Proof.

In virtute of (a), (x,y)Λ×U¯ is a solution of (2) if and only if x=S(y) and y is a fixed point of H1. Assume that (ii) does not hold. Hence Hλ is fixed point free on KU for λ(0,1). Obviously, condition i(H0,U,K)0 makes necessary that H0 is fixed point free on KU too. If H1 has a fixed point in KU, then (i) holds and we are finished. Otherwise, H is an admissible homotopy joining H1 with H0 and from the homotopy invariance of the fixed point index we should have i(H1,U,K)=i(H0,U,K)0, which guarantees that H1 has a fixed point in U, thus again condition (i) is satisfied. ∎

Theorem 2.1 gives in particular hybrid results for nonself maps of Krasnosel’kii, Burton-Kirk and Gao-Li-Zhang types. Instead the common contraction property, we consider its vector analogue, the Perov contraction (for this notion and related topics of vector analysis, we refer the reader to [16, Chapter 10]). To this aim, consider (Xi,|.|i), i=1,,n Banach spaces and X=X1××Xn the product space endowed with the norm

|x|X=|x1|1++|xn|n.

All topological notions such as continuity, compactness, boundary of a set, related to the product space X will be considered with respect to the norm |.|X. Also, on X we consider the vector-valued norm

x=(|x1|1,,|xn|n)T.

With respect to the vector-valued metric xy, the space X is a complete generalized metric space.

In such a product space X we have:

Corollary 2.2.

Let UX be open with 0U,A:XX a Perov contraction and B:U¯X compact. Then either

(i) the map A+B has a fixed point in U¯, or

(ii) there is a point xU and λ(0,1) with x=λ(A(x)+B(x)).

Proof.

Apply Theorem 2.1. Here K=Y=Λ=X,N1(x,y)=A(x)+B(y),N2(x,y)=x, S=(IA)1B and H(x,λ)=(IλA)1λB.

A similar result is the vector version of Burton-Kirk theorem:

Corollary 2.3.

Let UX be open with 0U,A:XX a Perov contraction and B:U¯X compact. Then either

(i) the map A+B has a fixed point in U¯, or

(ii) there is a point xU and λ(0,1) with x=λA(xλ)+λB(x).

Proof.

Apply Theorem 2.1. Here K=Y=Λ=X,N1(x,y)=A(x)+B(y),N2(x,y)=x, S=(IA)1B and H(x,λ)=λ(IA)1B.

Theorem 2.1 also yields the vector version of Gao-Li-Zhang:

Corollary 2.4.

Let UX be open with 0U,A:XX a Perov contraction and B:U¯X compact. Then either

(i) the map A+B has a fixed point in U¯, or

(ii) there is a point xU and λ(0,1) with x=A(x)+λB(x).

Proof.

Apply Theorem 2.1. Here K=Y=Λ=X,N1(x,y)=A(x)+B(y),N2(x,y)=x, S=(IA)1B and H(x,λ)=(IA)1λB.

2.2 Avramescu-Mönch theorem for nonself maps

We finish this section by an Avramescu-Mönch type result for nonself maps. It involves a compactness condition which does not make possible the use of the fixed point index.

Theorem 2.5.

Let Λ be a complete generalized metric space endowed with the vector-valued metric d, Y a Banach space, UY open with 0U, N1:Λ×U¯Λ and N2:Λ×U¯Y two maps such that

(a) N1(.,y) is a Perov contraction with the same Lipschitz matrix for yU¯;

(b) N2 is continuous and a Mönch map, i.e., if C=C1×C2Λ×U¯ is countable and C2conv¯({0}N2(C)), then C¯2 is compact.

Then either

(i) the system (2) has a solution (x,y)Λ×U¯, or

(ii) there is a point (x,y)Λ×U and λ(0,1) with

{N1(x,y)=xλN2(x,y)=y. (3)
Proof.

Solving (2) reduces to the fixed point equation y=N2(S(y),y) in U¯, where S:U¯Λ is defined by N1(S(y),y)=S(y) and whose well-definition and continuity are guarantees by (a). Next we use Mönch’s fixed point theorem for nonself maps ([7, Theorem 18.1]). To this end we  first need to check Mönch’s compactness condition for the operator T:= N2(S(.),.). If CU¯ is countable and Cconv¯({0}T(C)), then Cconv¯({0}N2(S(C),C)), whence in view of (b) implies that C¯2 is compact. Next observe that if a point (x,y)Λ×U and λ(0,1) satisfy (3) then x=S(y) and λN2(S(y),y)=y, that is λT(y)=y, which means that the Leray-Schauder boundary condition does not hold. Thus Mönch’s fixed point theorem applies and gives the result. ∎

3 Application

We present an application of the vector version of Burton-Kirk theorem, Corollary 2.3, to the following boundary value problem for a system of n equations

ui′′ = fi(t,Viu)+gi(t,V0u),a.e. t(0,1) (4)
ui(0) = ui(1)=0,i=1,2,,n,

where V0u and Viu denote the vectors

V0u=(u,u)=(u1,,un,u1,,un),Viu=(V0u,ui′′)=(u,u,ui′′).

Also the mappings fi and gi are assumed to satisfy the Carathéodory conditions and some additional conditions given below.

Note that the equations are implicit due to the dependence on ui′′ of the terms fi(t,Viu).

Denoting Lu=u′′ and letting xi=Lui, the system is equivalent to

xi = fi(t,ViL1x)+gi(t,V0L1x), a.e. t(0,1)
xi L2(0,1),i=1,2,,n.

Let

Ai(x) : =fi(t,ViL1x)
Bi(x) : =gi(t,V0L1x).

Thus our problem appears as a fixed point equation

x=A(x)+B(x),xL2(0,1;n).

We shall apply the vector version of Burton-Kirk theorem in the space L2(0,1;n). Before checking the conditions of this theorem, let us recall:

0) Some basic results on Sobolev spaces in one dimension.

One denotes by H01(0,1) the space of all absolutely continuous functions on [0,1] vanishing at 0 and 1 and whose derivative belongs to L2(0,1). This is a Hilbert space under the scalar product and norm

x,yH01=01xy𝑑t,|x|H01=|x|L2=(01x2𝑑t)1/2.

By H1(0,1) one denotes the dual of H01(0,1) and the following embeddings hold: H01(0,1)L2(0,1)H1(0,1). According to Poincaré’s inequality one has

|x|L2 1π|x|H01(xH01(0,1)),
|x|H1 1π|x|L2(xL2(0,1)).

The operator Lx=x′′ is an isometry between H01(0,1) and H1(0,1), so |L1x|H01=|x|H1 (xH1(0,1)).

Also note that the number μ1=π2 is the first eigenvalue of the operator x′′ under the Dirichlet boundary condition x(0)=x(1)=0.

1) We now guarantee that A is a Perov contraction on L2(0,1;n). To this aim assume that fi are Lipschitz continuous, more exactly

|fi(t,x,y,z)fi(t,x¯,y¯,z¯)|j=1n(aij|xjx¯j|+bij|yjy¯j|)+ci|zz¯| (5)

for all x,x¯,y,y¯n; z,z¯ and a.e. t(0,1).

Then for any x,yL2(0,1;n), one has

|Ai(x)Ai(y)|L2
j=1n(aij|L1(xjyj)|L2+bij|L1(xjyj)|L2)+ci|xiyi|L2
j=1n(aijπ2+bijπ)|xjyj|L2+ci|xiyi|L2,

where we used

|L1(xjyj)|L21π|L1(xjyj)|H01=1π|xjyj|H11π2|xjyj|L2.

Therefore A is a Perov contraction if

ρ(M)<1, (7)

where ρ(M) is the spectral radius of the matrix M=[mij]1i,jn whose entries are

mij=aijπ2+bijπfor ji,mii=aiiπ2+biiπ+ci.

2) A priori bounds for the solutions of the equations

x=λA(1λx)+λB(x),λ(0,1). (8)

Step 1: Bounds for |xi|H1.

We have

xi=λAi(t,1λViL1x)+λBi(t,V0L1x). (9)

Now we introduce a sign condition on gi, namely

xigi(t,x,y)0for every x,yn and a.e. t(0,1). (10)

Now we multiply by L1xi in (9) and integrate over [0,1] and we observe that L1xigi(t,V0L1x)0, we obtain

xi,L1xiL2
= |L1xi|H012=|xi|H12λ01L1xiAi(t,1λViL1x)𝑑t
01|L1xi|(j=1n(aij|L1xj|+bij|(L1xj)|)+ci|xi|+|fi(t,0)|)𝑑t
j=1n(aij|L1xj|L2+bij|(L1xj)|L2)|L1xi|L2+ϕi|L1xi|L2
+ci01|L1xi||xi|𝑑t,

where ϕi=|fi(,0)|L2. We have

|(L1xj)|L2=|L1xj|H01,|L1xj|L21π|L1xj|H01=1π|xj|H1.

Also

01|L1xi||xi|𝑑t=xi,σL1xiL2,

where σ(t) gives the sign of the function xi(t)(L1xi)(t). Furthermore

xi,σL1xiL2=|xi|H1|σL1xi|H01=|xi|H1|L1xi|H01=|xi|H12

Then

|xi|H12j=1n(aijπ2+bijπ)|xi|H1|xj|H1+ci|xi|H12+ϕiπ|xi|H1,

whence

|xi|H1j=1n(aijπ2+bijπ)|xj|H1+ci|xi|H1+ϕiπ.

These can be put under the matrix form

xH1MxH1+ϕ¯,

with columns xH1=[|xi|H1]1inT and ϕ¯=1π[ϕi]1inT. Since the spectral radius of M is less than one, we may multiply by (IM)1 and obtain

xH1(IM)1ϕ¯

which proves that |xi|H1 are bounded.

Step 2: |Bi(x)|L2C¯i. To this aim we impose a second condition to gi, namely the growth condition

|gi(t,x,y)|j=1n(αij|xj|p+βij|yj|)+γi(t)(x,yn), (11)

where αij,βij are nonnegative, p1 and γiL2(0,1;+). Notice the large generality of this growth condition with respect to xj since no restriction on the exponent p is required.

Then we have

|Bi(x)|L2j=1n(αij|L1xj|L2pp+βij|(L1xj)|L2)+|γi|L2

Furthermore, since H01(0,1)L2p(0,1) continuously, there is a constant η1 such that

|L1xj|L2pp η1|L1xj|H01p=η1|xj|H1p,
|(L1xj)|L2 = |L1xj|H01=|xj|H1.

Hence

|Bi(x)|L2j=1n(α¯ij|xj|H1p+βij|xj|H1)+|γi|L2

which in view of the result from Step 1 is bounded.

Step 3: |xi|L2Ci.Indeed, using (3) we have

|xi|L2 λ|Ai(1λx)|L2+λ|Bi(x)|L2
j=1nmij|xj|L2+ϕi+C¯i,

or, under the matrix form

xL2MxL2+ϕ~,

where x, ϕ~ are the column vectors x=[|xi|L2]1inT and ϕ~=[ϕi+C¯i]1inT. Then

xL2(IM)1ϕ~

which proves our claim.

3) Complete continuity of B. The linear operator L1 is compact from L2(0,1) to C1[0,1], while due to the growth property (11), the Nemytskii’s operator associated to gi is continuous and bounded (maps bounded sets into bounded sets) from C1 to L2. Consequently, as the composition of the previous two operators, Bi is completely continuous from L2(0,1;n) to L2(0,1).

4) Application of Corollary 2.3. The set of all solutions of the equations (8) being bounded it can be included in an open ball U of L2(0,1;n) centered at the origin and of a sufficiently large radius. Then all the assumptions of Corollary 2.3 are fulfilled.

Thus we can state following conclusion result.

Theorem 3.1.

If fi and gi satisfy the Carathéodory conditions and conditions (5), (7), (10) and (11) hold, then problem (4) has at least one solution.

References

  • [1] C. Avramescu, On a fixed point theorem (in Romanian), St. Cerc. Mat. 22 (1970), no. 2, 215–221.
  • [2] C.S. Barroso and E.V. Teixeira, A topological and geometric approach to fixed points results for sum of operators and applications, Nonlinear Anal. 60 (2005), 625–650.
  • [3] I. Basoc and T. Cardinali, A hybrid nonlinear alternative theorem and some hybrid fixed point theorems for multimaps, J. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 17 (2015), 413–424.
  • [4] I. Benedetti, T. Cardinali and R. Precup, Fixed point–critical point hybrid theorems and application to systems with partial variational structure, J. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 23 (2021), 63, 1–19.
  • [5] T. A. Burton and C. Kirk, A fixed point theorem of Krasnoselskii-Schaefer type, Math. Nachr. 189 (1998), 23–31.
  • [6] T. Cardinali, R. Precup and P. Rubbioni, Heterogeneous vectorial fixed point theorems, Mediterr. J. Math. 14 (2017), 83, 1–12.
  • [7] K. Deimling, Nonlinear Functional Analysis, Springer, Berlin, 1985.
  • [8] B.C. Dhage, Local fixed point theory for the sum of two operators in Banach spaces, Fixed Point Theory 4 (2003), 49–60.
  • [9] H. Gao, Y. Li and B. Zhang, A fixed point theorem of Krasnoselskii-Schaefer type and its applications in control and periodicity of integral equations, Fixed Point Theory 12 (2011), 91–112.
  • [10] L. Górniewicz and A. Ouahab, Some fixed point theorems of a Krasnosel’skii type and application to differential inclusions, Fixed Point Theory 17 (2016), 85–92.
  • [11] G.L. Karakostas, An extension of Krasnoselsk’s fixed point theorem for contractions and compact mappings, Topol. Methods Nonlinear Anal. 22 (2003), 181–191.
  • [12] M.A. Krasnosel’skii, Some problems of nonlinear analysis, Amer. Math. Soc. Transl. Ser. 2 10 (1958), 345–409.
  • [13] D. O’Regan, Fixed-point theory for the sum of two operators, Appl. Math. Lett. 9 (1996), 1–8.
  • [14] S. Park, Generalizations of the Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem, Nonlinear Anal. 67 (2007), 3401–3410.
  • [15] I.-R. Petre and A. Petruşel, Krasnoselskii’s theorem in generalized Banach spaces and applications, Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ. 2012, 85, 1–20.
  • [16] R. Precup, Methods in Nonlinear Integral Equations, Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht, 2011.
  • [17] I.A. Rus, On the fixed points of mappings defined on a Cartesian product. III (in Romanian), Studia Univ. Babeş–Bolyai Math. 24 (1979), no. 2, 55–56.
  • [18] A. Ouahab, Some Perov’s and Krasnosel’skii type fixed point results and application, Comm. Appl. Anal. 19 (2015), 623–642.
  • [19] T. Xiang and R. Yuan, Critical type of Krasnosel’skii fixed point theorem, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 139 (2007), 1033–1044.

[1] C. Avramescu, On a fixed point theorem (in Romanian), St. Cerc. Mat., 22(1970), no. 2, 215–221.
[2] C.S. Barroso, E.V. Teixeira, A topological and geometric approach to fixed points results for sum of operators and applications, Nonlinear Anal., 60(2005), 625–650.
[3] I. Basoc, T. Cardinali, A hybrid nonlinear alternative theorem and some hybrid fixed point theorems for multimaps, J. Fixed Point Theory Appl., 17(2015), 413–424.
[4] I. Benedetti, T. Cardinali, R. Precup, Fixed point–critical point hybrid theorems and application to systems with partial variational structure, J. Fixed Point Theory Appl., 23(2021), 63, 1–19.
[5] T.A. Burton, C. Kirk, A fixed point theorem of Krasnoselskii-Schaefer type, Math. Nachr., 189(1998), 23–31.
[6] T. Cardinali, R. Precup, P. Rubbioni, Heterogeneous vectorial fixed point theorems, Mediterr. J. Math., 14(2017), 83, 1–12.
[7] K. Deimling, Nonlinear Functional Analysis, Springer, Berlin, 1985
[8] B.C. Dhage, Local fixed point theory for the sum of two operators in Banach spaces, Fixed Point Theory, 4(2003), 49–60.
[9] H. Gao, Y. Li, B. Zhang, A fixed point theorem of Krasnoselskii-Schaefer type and its applications in control and periodicity of integral equations, Fixed Point Theory, 12(2011), 91–112.
[10] L. Gorniewicz, A. Ouahab, Some fixed point theorems of a Krasnosel’skii type and application to differential inclusions, Fixed Point Theory, 17(2016), 85–92.
[11] G.L. Karakostas, An extension of Krasnoselsk’s fixed point theorem for contractions and compact mappings, Topol. Methods Nonlinear Anal., 22(2003), 181–191.
[12] M.A. Krasnosel’skii, Some problems of nonlinear analysis, Amer. Math. Soc. Transl. Ser. 2, 10(1958), 345–409.
[13] D. O’Regan, Fixed-point theory for the sum of two operators, Appl. Math. Lett., 9(1996), 1–8.
[14] A. Ouahab, Some Perov’s and Krasnosel’skii type fixed point results and application, Comm. Appl. Anal., 19(2015), 623–642.
[15] S. Park, Generalizations of the Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem, Nonlinear Anal., 67(2007), 3401–3410.
[16] I.-R. Petre, A. Petru¸sel, Krasnoselskii’s theorem in generalized Banach spaces and applications, Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ., 2012, 85, 1–20.
[17] R. Precup, Methods in Nonlinear Integral Equations, Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht, 2011.
[18] I.A. Rus, On the fixed points of mappings defined on a Cartesian product, III (in Romanian), Studia Univ. Babes–Bolyai Math., 24(1979), no. 2, 55–56.
[19] T. Xiang, R. Yuan, Critical type of Krasnosel’skii fixed point theorem, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 139(2007), 1033–1044.

2023

Related Posts